Growing up we were told a story.
Every Christmas a woman would cut the leg off the turkey before putting it into a very large oven.
When asked why she took the leg off, she said: “It is the way my mother taught me”. She had never questioned it. In her mind, this was just a normal part of cooking a turkey.
The woman’s mother had a small oven, and so needed to cut the leg of the turkey off so it would fit inside. Her daughter did not.
In our work it also helps to understand the reasons why people do things rather than just focusing on what they do.
Yet again, Shane Parrish has surfaced some useful thinking skills in his book Great Mental Models v1.
“First principles thinking helps us avoid the problem of relying on someone else’s tactics without understanding the rationale behind them”
This week I am focusing on two ideas that help us use first principles thinking, both to do with asking great questions.
The first technique is Socratic questioning
This technique is useful for us both as we craft our communication and as we evaluate it, or potentially evaluate other peoples’ communication. Shane offers six questions for us to use:
- Clarifying your thinking and explaining the origins of your ideas. He suggests asking two questions: Why do I think this? What exactly do I think? In Clarity First we focus intently on these two questions, and particularly on articulating what we do think so we can explain that to our audience in short order.
- Challenging assumptions. How do I know this is true? What if I thought the opposite? These are two great questions to use to ‘freshen up our eyes’ so we can see through the substance of our communication rather than just the superficial presentation.
- Looking for evidence. How can I back this up? What are the sources? Again, this is something we focus on in Clarity First. We offer specific strategies to help participants test their ideas and the way they are ‘strung together’ to form a coherent piece of communication.
- Considering alternative perspectives. What might others think? How do I know I am correct? The way we recommend participants socialise their communication with key stakeholders addresses this point.
- Examining consequences and implications. What if I am wrong? What are the consequences if I am? Terrific questions to ask yourself when preparing high stakes communication in particular.
- Questioning the original questions. Why did I think that? Was I correct? What conclusions can I draw from the reasoning process? If we are talking about first principles, these last three questions are gold for those who want to stop relying on their gut and limit emotive responses.
Second: The Five Why’s method
If you have ever had much to do with young children, you will know where this has come from!
We use this technique specifically when clarifying the purpose of our communication. It is about systematically delving into your purpose statement so you can eradicate inaccurate assumptions.
Are you sure you are going to achieve ABC with that specific piece of communication, or that one particular interaction?
We encourage participants to spend the time to become super clear about this as this single statement (which does not even appear in their communication) is key to cutting the number of revisions they will make after drafting.
I hope you find that useful and look forward to sharing more ideas with you next week.
Related posts include:
Past posts from this series …
- A fabulous thinking tool to help you solve problems and communicate
- Further thinking tools
- Thinking Tools #3 – Using inversions to identify gaps in our thinking
- Thinking Tools #4 – Getting out of your own way
- Thinking Tools #5 – Avoiding Blind Spots
- Thinking Tools #6 – How to have a latticework of theory
- Thinking Tools #7 – Avoiding becoming a tragic tale
- Thinking Tools #8 – How corporate templates can frustrate clarity
PS – Our new kit for ‘pitching your manager' is now available. It includes an updated program brochure as well as a script you may like to cut and paste into your email or use to guide your conversation with your manager. Click here to learn more.
PPS – I receive a small commission if you click the link and decide to purchase a copy of Shane's book from Amazon.
Key words: critical thinking, thinking tools, design your strategy
Davina has been helping experts communicate complex ideas since joining McKinsey as a communication specialist 20+ years ago.
She helps experts clarify their thinking so they can prepare powerful and strategic communication in any format. It might mean preparing for a difficult meeting, getting ready for a project steering committee, putting forward a business case or writing a board paper.
She bases her approach on The Minto Pyramid PrincipleⓇ combined with other powerful techniques to help experts of all kinds globally strengthen their communication skills.